The first Super Massive Black Holes:indications from models for future observations

Amarantidis, Stergios and Afonso, José and Messias, Hugo and Henriques, Bruno and Griffin, Andrew and Lacey, Cedric and Lagos, Claudia del P. and Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta and Dubois, Yohan and Volonteri, Marta and Matute, Israel and Pappalardo, Ciro and Qin, Yuxiang and Chary, Ranga-Ram and Norris, Ray P. (2019) The first Super Massive Black Holes:indications from models for future observations. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 485 (2). 2694–2709. ISSN 0035-8711

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Abstract

We present an exploration of the expected detection of the earliest Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in the Universe from state-of-art galaxy formation and evolution semi-analytic models and hydro-dynamical simulations. We estimate the number and radiative characteristics of Super Massive Black Holes (SMBHs) at $z\geq 6$, a redshift range that will be intensively explored by the next generation of telescopes, in particular in the radio through the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and at high energies with ESA's Athena X-ray Observatory. We find that Athena will be able to observe over 5000 AGN/$\rm deg^2$ at the Epoch of Re-ionization (EoR), $6\leq z \leq 10$. Similarly, for the same redshift range the models/simulations suggest that SKA will detect at least 400 AGN/$\rm deg^2$. Additionally, we stress the importance of the volume of the simulation box as well as the initial physical conditions of the models/simulations on their effect on the luminosity functions (LFs) and the creation of the most massive SMBHs that we currently observe at the EoR. Furthermore, following the evolution of the accretion mode of the SMBHs in each model/simulation, we show that, while the quasar dominates over the radio mode at the EoR, detection at radio wavelengths still reaches significant numbers even at the highest redshifts. Finally, we present the effect that the radiative efficiency has on the LFs by comparing results produced with a constant value for the radiative efficiency and more complex calculations based on the spin of each SMBH.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Information:
This is a pre-copy-editing, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society following peer review. The definitive publisher-authenticated version Stergios Amarantidis, José Afonso, Hugo Messias, Bruno Henriques, Andrew Griffin, Cedric Lacey, Claudia del P Lagos, Violeta Gonzalez-Perez, Yohan Dubois, Marta Volonteri, Israel Matute, Ciro Pappalardo, Yuxiang Qin, Ranga-Ram Chary, Ray P Norris; The first Super Massive Black Holes: indications from models for future observations, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, is available online at: https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz551
Uncontrolled Keywords:
/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/1900/1912
Subjects:
ID Code:
131720
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Deposited On:
12 Mar 2019 09:15
Refereed?:
Yes
Published?:
Published
Last Modified:
31 Mar 2020 06:08