DELTA2 guidance on choosing the target difference and undertaking and reporting the sample size calculation for a randomised controlled trial Suzie Cro

Cook, J.A. and Julious, S.A. and Sones, W. and Hampson, L.V. and Hewitt, C. and Berlin, J.A. and Ashby, D. and Emsley, R. and Fergusson, D.A. and Walters, S.J. and Wilson, E.C.F. and Maclennan, G. and Stallard, N. and Rothwell, J.C. and Bland, M. and Brown, L. and Ramsay, C.R. and Cook, A. and Armstrong, D. and Altman, D. and Vale, L.D. (2018) DELTA2 guidance on choosing the target difference and undertaking and reporting the sample size calculation for a randomised controlled trial Suzie Cro. Trials, 19 (1). ISSN 1745-6215

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Abstract

Background: A key step in the design of a RCT is the estimation of the number of participants needed in the study. The most common approach is to specify a target difference between the treatments for the primary outcome and then calculate the required sample size. The sample size is chosen to ensure that the trial will have a high probability (adequate statistical power) of detecting a target difference between the treatments should one exist. The sample size has many implications for the conduct and interpretation of the study. Despite the critical role that the target difference has in the design of a RCT, the way in which it is determined has received little attention. In this article, we summarise the key considerations and messages from new guidance for researchers and funders on specifying the target difference, and undertaking and reporting a RCT sample size calculation. This article on choosing the target difference for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) and undertaking and reporting the sample size calculation has been dual published in the BMJ and BMC Trials journals Methods: The DELTA2 (Difference ELicitation in TriAls) project comprised five major components: systematic literature reviews of recent methodological developments (stage 1) and existing funder guidance (stage 2); a Delphi study (stage 3); a two-day consensus meeting bringing together researchers, funders and patient representatives (stage 4); and the preparation and dissemination of a guidance document (stage 5). Results and Discussion: The key messages from the DELTA2 guidance on determining the target difference and sample size calculation for a randomised caontrolled trial are presented. Recommendations for the subsequent reporting of the sample size calculation are also provided. © 2018 The Author(s).

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Trials
Uncontrolled Keywords:
/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/2700/2701
Subjects:
ID Code:
129557
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
11 Dec 2018 10:26
Refereed?:
Yes
Published?:
Published
Last Modified:
16 Sep 2020 05:06