Longitudinal association of gonorrhea and bacterial vaginosis with repeat chlamydia diagnosis among U.S. Army females:a retrospective cohort analysis

Bautista, Christian and Wurapa, Eyako and Sateren, Warren B. and Hollingsworth, Bruce Philip and Sanchez, Juan (2018) Longitudinal association of gonorrhea and bacterial vaginosis with repeat chlamydia diagnosis among U.S. Army females:a retrospective cohort analysis. Military Medical Research, 5. ISSN 2095-7467

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Abstract

Background Historically, sexually transmitted infections have affected the health of the U.S. military. To determine whether gonorrhea, bacterial vaginosis, genital herpes, and trichomoniasis are predictors of repeat chlamydia diagnoses among U.S. Army women, medical data reported into the Defense Medical Surveillance System during the 2006–2012 period were analyzed. Methods For all inpatient and outpatient medical records, the first and second International Classification of Diseases, version 9 (ICD-9) diagnostic positions were reviewed for each chlamydia case to determine the occurrence of repeat diagnoses. The Andersen-Gill regression model, an extension of the Cox model for multiple failure-time data, was used to study associations between predictors and repeat chlamydia diagnoses. Results Among 28,201 women with a first chlamydia diagnosis, 5145 (18.2%), 1163 (4.1%), 267 (0.9%), and 88 (0.3%) had one, two, three, and four or more repeat diagnoses, respectively. Overall, the incidence of repeat chlamydia was 8.31 cases per 100 person-years, with a median follow-up time of 3.39 years. Gonorrhea (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.44–1.73) and bacterial vaginosis (HR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.09–1.79) were significant predictors for repeat chlamydia. These estimated hazard ratios were attenuated, but remained significant, after controlling for age, race/ethnicity, marital status, and military rank. No significant association was found for genital herpes (HR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.55–2.29) and trichomoniasis (HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.43–4.68). Conclusions This large cohort study suggests that gonorrhea and bacterial vaginosis were associated with repeat chlamydia diagnoses among U.S. Army women. These findings can be used in formulating new interventions to prevent repeat chlamydia diagnoses.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Military Medical Research
Subjects:
ID Code:
129316
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
05 Dec 2018 13:56
Refereed?:
Yes
Published?:
Published
Last Modified:
01 Jan 2020 11:41