Physical and biological controls on fine sediment transport and storage in rivers

Wilkes, Martin A and Gittins, Joshua R. and Mathers, Kate L and Mason, Richard and Casas-Mulet, Roser and Vanzo, Davide and Mckenzie, Morwenna and Murray-Bligh, John and England, Judy and Gurnell, Angela and Jones, J. Iwan (2019) Physical and biological controls on fine sediment transport and storage in rivers. WIREs WATER, 6 (2). ISSN 2049-1948

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Abstract

Excess fine sediment, comprising particles <2 mm in diameter, is a major cause of ecological degradation in rivers. The erosion of fine sediment from terrestrial or aquatic sources, its delivery to the river, and its storage and transport in the fluvial environment are controlled by a complex interplay of physical, biological and anthropogenic factors. Whilst the physical controls exerted on fine sediment dynamics are relatively well-documented, the role of biological processes and their interactions with hydraulic and physico-chemical phenomena has been largely overlooked. The activities of biota, from primary producers to predators, exert strong controls on fine sediment deposition, infiltration and resuspension. For example, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) associated with biofilms increase deposition and decrease resuspension. In lower energy rivers, aquatic macrophyte growth and senescence are intimately linked to sediment retention and loss, whereas riparian trees are dominant ecosystem engineers in high energy systems. Fish and invertebrates also have profound effects on fine sediment dynamics through activities that drive both particle deposition and erosion depending on species composition and abiotic conditions. The functional traits of species present will determine not only these biotic effects but also the responses of river ecosystems to excess fine sediment. We discuss which traits are involved and put them into context with spatial processes that occur throughout the river network. Whilst strides towards better understanding of the impacts of excess fine sediment have been made, further progress to identify the most effective management approaches is urgently required through close communication between authorities and scientists.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
WIREs WATER
Additional Information:
This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Wilkes MA, Gittins JR, Mathers KL, et al. Physical and biological controls on fine sediment transport and storage in rivers. WIREs Water. 2018;e1331. https://doi.org/10.1002/wat2.1331 which has been published in final form at https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/wat2.1331 This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance With Wiley Terms and Conditions for self-archiving.
Uncontrolled Keywords:
/dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/3300/3305
Subjects:
ID Code:
129060
Deposited By:
Deposited On:
07 Jan 2019 13:49
Refereed?:
Yes
Published?:
Published
Last Modified:
29 Sep 2020 04:38