Comparison of Single- and Sequential-Solvent Extractions of Total Extractable Benzo[ a]pyrene Fractions in Contrasting Soils

Umeh, Anthony C and Duan, Luchun and Naidu, Ravi and Semple, Kirk T (2018) Comparison of Single- and Sequential-Solvent Extractions of Total Extractable Benzo[ a]pyrene Fractions in Contrasting Soils. Analytical Chemistry, 90 (19). pp. 11703-11709. ISSN 0003-2700

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The fate and behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil are of interest in the risk assessment of contaminated land and are usually based on determinations of fractions extracted from soil. For decades, either single- or sequential-solvent extractions have been used to determine PAH extractability in soils; however, there is a lack of certainty as to which fractions are being extracted by these techniques. This study is the first report of differences and similarities in the extractability of benzo[ a]pyrene (B[ a]P) in four contrasting soils (sandy loam, loamy sand, clayey loam, and sandy) when determined using both single-solvent (dichloromethane/acetone (DCM/Ace) mixture) and sequential-solvent (butanol followed by DCM/Ace) extraction. Residues after extraction were subjected to methanolic saponification (MeKOH). Butanol (BuOH) extractability and total extractability of B[ a]P following sequential-solvent extraction decreased significantly ( p < 0.05) with time after addition of B[ a]P. The decrease in BuOH extractability was particularly marked in the organic-matter-rich clayey-loam soil, which also had the largest (>40%) amounts of nonextractable residues. The cumulative amounts of B[ a]P extracted in each soil by single- and sequential-solvent extractions were similar ( p > 0.05) at each aging period, which indicated access to similar B[ a]P fractions in soil by both solvent extractions. The similarities in the amounts of B[ a]P nonextractable residues recovered by MeKOH from pre-extracted soils, through either of the extraction methods, confirms that the total extractable B[ a]P fractions from both methods are similar.

Item Type:
Journal Article
Journal or Publication Title:
Analytical Chemistry
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This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Analytical Chemistry, copyright ©2018 American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see
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24 Oct 2018 14:00
Last Modified:
01 Feb 2024 00:36