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Inactivation of a tachykinin-related peptide: identification of four neuropeptide-degrading enzymes in neuronal membranes of insects from four different orders.

Isaac, R. Elwyn and Parkin, Edward T. and Keen, Jeffrey N. and Nässel, Dick R. and Siviter, Richard J. and Shirras, Alan D. (2002) Inactivation of a tachykinin-related peptide: identification of four neuropeptide-degrading enzymes in neuronal membranes of insects from four different orders. Peptides, 23 (4). pp. 725-733. ISSN 0196-9781

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Abstract

Tachykinin-related peptides (TRP) are widely distributed in the CNS of insects, where they are likely to function as transmitters/modulators. Metabolic inactivation by membrane ecto-peptidases is one mechanism by which peptide signalling is terminated in the CNS. Using locustatachykinin-1 (LomTK-1, GPSGFYGVRamide) as a substrate and several selective peptidase inhibitors, we have compared the types of membrane associated peptidases present in the CNS of four insects, Locusta migratoria, Leucophaea maderae, Drosophila melanogaster and Lacanobia oleracea. A neprilysin (NEP)-like activity cleaving the G-F peptide bond was the major LomTK-1-degrading peptidase detected in locust brain membranes. NEP activity was also found in Leucophaea brain membranes, but the major peptidase was an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), cleaving the G-V peptide bond. Drosophila adult head and larval neuronal membranes cleaved the G-F and G-V peptide bonds. Phosphoramidon inhibited both these cleavages, but with markedly different potencies, indicating the presence in the fly brain of two NEP-like enzymes with different substrate and inhibitor specificity. In Drosophila, membrane ACE did not make a significant contribution to the cleavage of the G-V bond. In contrast, ACE was an important membrane peptidase in Lacanobia brain, whereas very little neuronal NEP could be detected. A dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) that removed the GP dipeptide from the N-terminus of LomTK-1 was also found in Lacanobia neuronal membranes. This peptidase was a minor contributor to LomTK-1 metabolism by neuronal membranes from all four insect species. In Lacanobia, LomTK-1 was also a substrate for a deamidase that converted LomTK-1 to the free acid form. However, the deamidase was not an integral membrane protein and could be a lysosomal contaminant. It appears that insects from different orders can have different complements of neuropeptide-degrading enzymes. NEP, ACE and the deamidase are likely to be more efficient than the common DPP IV activity at terminating neuropeptide signalling since they cleave close to the C-terminus of the tachykinin, a region essential for maintaining biological activity.

Item Type: Article
Journal or Publication Title: Peptides
Uncontrolled Keywords: Insect tachykinin ; Neuronal peptidases ; Endopeptidase ; Angiotensin converting enzyme ; Dipeptidyl peptidase IV ; Deamidase
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history > QH301 Biology
Departments: Faculty of Science and Technology > Lancaster Environment Centre
Faculty of Health and Medicine > Biomedical & Life Sciences
ID Code: 9350
Deposited By: Dr Alan Shirras
Deposited On: 09 Jun 2008 09:26
Refereed?: Yes
Published?: Published
Last Modified: 26 Jul 2012 18:35
Identification Number:
URI: http://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/id/eprint/9350

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