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N-acetyl-cysteine causes a late re-specification of the anteroposterior axis in the Xenopus embryo

Gatherer, Derek and Woodland, Hugh R. (1996) N-acetyl-cysteine causes a late re-specification of the anteroposterior axis in the Xenopus embryo. Developmental Dynamics, 205 (4). pp. 395-409. ISSN 1058-8388

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Abstract

N-acetyl cysteine is an agent which has been shown to interrupt signal transduction processes linking a wide range of stimuli to the activation of NF-KB in mammalian cells. We have investigated its effect on the early development of Xenopus embryos by injecting it into blastulae, using concentrations comparable to those effective on cultured cells. High concentrations at the late blastula or early gastrula stage suppress posterior and enhance anterior development, yielding embryos with enlarged cement glands and otherwise consisting of little except head in extreme cases. Reducing the amount of N-acetyl cysteine injected leads to progressively more posterior structures developing. Injection into one- or two-cell embryos gives similar phenotypes, but of reduced severity and the cement gland is not so enlarged, Explants of animal cap cells taken several hours after injection develop to give large amounts of cement gland material. We have examined the expression of a number of genes in the anteriorised embryos. Posterior markers and Xsna are reduced. Noggin and Goosecoid mRNA are up-regulated through the gastrula and persist at these levels until at least the late neurula stage, whereas in controls Noggin is much lower and Goosecoid is absent at these stages. The most anteriorised phenotype may be a consequence of this changed expression. (C) 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Item Type: Article
Journal or Publication Title: Developmental Dynamics
Uncontrolled Keywords: Xenopus development ; cement gland ; positional information ; axis formation ; macrocephaly ; N-acetyl cysteine ; NF-kappa B ; CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; HOMEOBOX GENE XHOX3 ; ANIMAL CAP CELLS ; FROG EMBRYOS ; KAPPA-B ; SPEMANN ORGANIZER ; MESODERM INDUCTION ; NEURAL INDUCTION ; LAEVIS EMBRYOS ; CEMENT-GLAND
Subjects:
Departments: Faculty of Health and Medicine > Biomedical & Life Sciences
ID Code: 66860
Deposited By: ep_importer_pure
Deposited On: 30 Sep 2013 11:01
Refereed?: Yes
Published?: Published
Last Modified: 21 Sep 2017 05:49
Identification Number:
URI: http://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/id/eprint/66860

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