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The economic implications of treating atherothrombotic disease in Australia, from the government perspective

Ademi, Zanfina and Liew, Danny and Hollingsworth, Bruce and Wolfe, Rory and Steg, Gabriel P. and Bhatt, Deepak L. and Reid, Christopher M. (2010) The economic implications of treating atherothrombotic disease in Australia, from the government perspective. Clinical Therapeutics, 32 (1). pp. 119-132. ISSN 0149-2918

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Abstract

Background: The management of atherothrombotic disease is responsible for a large proportion of direct medical costs in most countries, imposing a substantial financial burden on health care payers. There is limited knowledge about direct per-person medical costs using a “bottom-up” approach. Objective: This study was designed to estimate the per-person direct medical costs incurred by communitybased subjects in Australia who have or are at high risk for atherothrombotic disease. The perspective was a governmental one, at the federal level for pharmaceuticals and at the state level for hospitalizations. Methods: One-year follow-up data were obtained for Australian participants in the international REACH (Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health) Registry who were aged ≥45 years and had either established atherothrombotic disease (coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, or peripheral artery disease [PAD]) or ≥3 risk factors for atherothrombotic disease. Information was extracted on the use of cardiovascular medications, hospitalizations, general practice visits, clinical pathology and imaging studies, and use of rehabilitation services. Bottom-up costing was undertaken by assigning unit costs to each health care item, based on Australian government reimbursement data for 2006–2007. Costs were estimated in Australian dollars. Results: Data for 2873 Australian participants in the REACH Registry were included in the analysis. Mean (SD) annual pharmaceutical costs per person were A$1388 (A$645). Mean ambulatory care costs per person were A$704 (A$492), and mean hospitalization costs were A$10,711 (A$10,494). Compared with participants with ≥3 risk factors (adjusted for age and sex), participants with 2 to 3 affected vascular territories incurred A$160 more in mean pharmaceutical costs (95% CI, 78 to 256) and A$181 more in ambulatory care costs (95% CI, 107 to 252). Mean ambulatory care costs were A$132 greater among participants with PAD only relative to those with ≥3 risk factors (95% CI, 19 to 272). Hospital costs were not significantly increased with an increasing number of affected vascular territories. The greatest difference in direct hospital costs (A$943) was between participants with PAD relative to those with ≥3 risk factors (95% CI, −564 to 3545). Conclusions: From the government perspective, management of atherothrombotic disease in Australia was costly during the period studied, particularly among those with PAD only or disease affecting 2 to 3 vascular territories. Hospitalization accounted for the majority of health care expenditure associated with atherothrombotic disease, although the number of hospitalized participants was relatively small.

Item Type: Article
Journal or Publication Title: Clinical Therapeutics
Uncontrolled Keywords: aged ; atherothrombosis ; direct health care costs
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Departments: Faculty of Health and Medicine > Health Research
ID Code: 55173
Deposited By: ep_importer_pure
Deposited On: 19 Jun 2012 09:57
Refereed?: Yes
Published?: Published
Last Modified: 26 Jul 2012 20:35
Identification Number:
URI: http://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/id/eprint/55173

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