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Sublethal genotoxicity and cell alterations by organophosphorus pesticides in MCF-7 cells:implications for environmentally relevant concentrations

Ukpebor, Justina and Llabjani, Valon and Martin, Frank and Halsall, Crispin J (2011) Sublethal genotoxicity and cell alterations by organophosphorus pesticides in MCF-7 cells:implications for environmentally relevant concentrations. Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC, 30 (3). pp. 632-639. ISSN 1552-8618

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Abstract

Organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) toxicity is believed to be mediated through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Given their widespread distribution in aquatic systems and their ability to undergo chemical transformation, their environmental impacts at sublethal concentrations in nontarget organisms have become an important question. We conducted a number of mammalian-cell genotoxic and gene expression assays and examined cellular biochemical changes that followed low-dose exposure of MCF-7 cells to fenitrothion, diazinon, and the aqueous degradate of diazinon, 2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol (IMP). After exposure to the OPPs at low concentrations (10(-12) M to 10(-8) M), greater than twofold elevations in micronucleus formation were noted in MCF-7 cell cultures that went on to exhibit greater than 75% clonogenic survival; these levels of chromosomal damage were comparable to those induced by 10(-6) M benzo[a]pyrene, a known genotoxic agent. At this low concentration range, a fenitrothion-induced twofold elevation in B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) and cytochrome P450 isoenzyme (CYP1A1) gene expressions was observed. Principal component analysis-linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) of derived infrared (IR) spectra of vehicle control (nonexposed) and OPP-exposed cells highlighted that both fenitrothion and diazinon induced marked biochemical alterations in the lipid, protein, and DNA/RNA absorbance regions. Our findings demonstrate that the two OPP parent chemicals and IMP degradate can mediate a number of toxic effects or cellular alterations at very low concentrations. These are independent of just selective inhibition of AChE, with potential consequences for nontarget organisms exposed at environmentally relevant concentrations. Further assays on relevant aquatic organism cell lines are now recommended to understand the mechanistic low-dose toxicity of these chemicals present in aquatic systems.

Item Type: Article
Journal or Publication Title: Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC
Additional Information: Copyright © 2011 SETAC.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Clonogenic assay ; Infrared spectroscopy ; Low dose ; Micronucleus assay ; Organophosphorus insecticide
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
Departments: Faculty of Science and Technology > Lancaster Environment Centre
ID Code: 54384
Deposited By: ep_importer_pure
Deposited On: 22 May 2012 08:46
Refereed?: Yes
Published?: Published
Last Modified: 17 Sep 2013 08:31
Identification Number:
URI: http://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/id/eprint/54384

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