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The influence of ozone precursor emissions from four world regions on tropospheric composition and radiative climate forcing

Fry, Meridith M. and Naik, Vaishali and West, J. Jason and Schwarzkopf, M. Daniel and Fiore, Arlene M. and Collins, William J. and Dentener, Frank J. and Shindell, Drew T. and Atherton, Cyndi and Bergmann, Daniel and Duncan, Bryan N. and Hess, Peter and MacKenzie, Ian A. and Marmer, Elina and Schultz, Martin G. and Szopa, Sophie and Wild, Oliver and Zeng, Guang (2012) The influence of ozone precursor emissions from four world regions on tropospheric composition and radiative climate forcing. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 117 (D7). -. ISSN 0747-7309

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    Abstract

    Ozone (O-3) precursor emissions influence regional and global climate and air quality through changes in tropospheric O-3 and oxidants, which also influence methane (CH4) and sulfate aerosols (SO42-). We examine changes in the tropospheric composition of O-3, CH4, SO42- and global net radiative forcing (RF) for 20% reductions in global CH4 burden and in anthropogenic O-3 precursor emissions (NOx, NMVOC, and CO) from four regions (East Asia, Europe and Northern Africa, North America, and South Asia) using the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution Source-Receptor global chemical transport model (CTM) simulations, assessing uncertainty (mean +/- 1 standard deviation) across multiple CTMs. We evaluate steady state O-3 responses, including long-term feedbacks via CH4. With a radiative transfer model that includes greenhouse gases and the aerosol direct effect, we find that regional NOx reductions produce global, annually averaged positive net RFs (0.2 +/- 0.6 to 1.7 +/- 2 mWm(-2)/TgN yr(-1)), with some variation among models. Negative net RFs result from reductions in global CH4 (-162.6 +/- 2 mWm(-2) for a change from 1760 to 1408 ppbv CH4) and regional NMVOC (-0.4 +/- 0.2 to -0.7 +/- 0.2 mWm(-2)/Tg C yr(-1)) and CO emissions (-0.13 +/- 0.02 to -0.15 +/- 0.02 mWm(-2)/Tg CO yr(-1)). Including the effect of O-3 on CO2 uptake by vegetation likely makes these net RFs more negative by -1.9 to -5.2 mWm(-2)/Tg N yr(-1), -0.2 to -0.7 mWm(-2)/Tg C yr(-1), and -0.02 to -0.05 mWm(-2)/Tg CO yr(-1). Net RF impacts reflect the distribution of concentration changes, where RF is affected locally by changes in SO42-, regionally to hemispherically by O-3, and globally by CH4. Global annual average SO42- responses to oxidant changes range from 0.4 +/- 2.6 to -1.9 +/- 1.3 Gg for NOx reductions, 0.1 +/- 1.2 to -0.9 +/- 0.8 Gg for NMVOC reductions, and -0.09 +/- 0.5 to -0.9 +/- 0.8 Gg for CO reductions, suggesting additional research is needed. The 100-year global warming potentials (GWP(100)) are calculated for the global CH4 reduction (20.9 +/- 3.7 without stratospheric O-3 or water vapor, 24.2 +/- 4.2 including those components), and for the regional NOx, NMVOC, and CO reductions (-18.7 +/- 25.9 to -1.9 +/- 8.7 for NOx, 4.8 +/- 1.7 to 8.3 +/- 1.9 for NMVOC, and 1.5 +/- 0.4 to 1.7 +/- 0.5 for CO). Variation in GWP(100) for NOx, NMVOC, and CO suggests that regionally specific GWPs may be necessary and could support the inclusion

    Item Type: Article
    Journal or Publication Title: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
    Additional Information: Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union
    Uncontrolled Keywords: Ozone ; methane ; sulphate aerosol ; Climate ; radiative forcing ; Tropospheric composition ; intercontinent transport
    Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
    Departments: Faculty of Science and Technology > Lancaster Environment Centre
    ID Code: 54128
    Deposited By: ep_importer_pure
    Deposited On: 14 May 2012 14:58
    Refereed?: Yes
    Published?: Published
    Last Modified: 13 Dec 2013 13:10
    Identification Number:
    URI: http://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/id/eprint/54128

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