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When logic and belief collide: Individual differences in reasoning times support a selective processing model

Stupple, Edward J. N. and Ball, Linden J. and Evans, Jonathan St B. T. and Kamal-Smith, Emily (2011) When logic and belief collide: Individual differences in reasoning times support a selective processing model. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 23 (8). pp. 931-941.

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Abstract

When the validity of a deductive conclusion conflicts with its believability people often respond in a belief-biased manner. This study used response times to test the selective processing model, which views belief-bias effects as arising from the interplay between superficial heuristic processes and more rigorous analytic processes. Participants were split into three response groups according to their propensity to endorse logically normative conclusions. The low-logic, high belief-bias group demonstrated rapid responding, consistent with heuristic processing. The medium-logic, moderate belief-bias group showed slower responding, consistent with enhanced analytic processing, albeit selectively biased by conclusion believability. The high-logic, low belief-bias group's relatively unbiased responses came at the cost of increased processing times, especially with invalid-believable conclusions. These findings support selective processing claims that distinct heuristic and analytic processing systems underpin reasoning, and indicate that certain individuals differentially engage one system more than the other. A minor amendment is proposed to the current selective processing model to capture the full range of observed effects.

Item Type: Article
Journal or Publication Title: Journal of Cognitive Psychology
Uncontrolled Keywords: Belief bias ; Deduction ; Dual process theory ; Individual differences ; Reasoning ; WORKING-MEMORY ; CONFLICT ; BIAS ; THINKING
Subjects: UNSPECIFIED
Departments: Faculty of Science and Technology > Psychology
ID Code: 52493
Deposited By: ep_importer_pure
Deposited On: 08 Feb 2012 14:02
Refereed?: Yes
Published?: Published
Last Modified: 09 Apr 2014 23:04
Identification Number:
URI: http://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/id/eprint/52493

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