Wild, Oliver and Akimoto, Hajime (2001) Intercontinental transport of ozone and its precursors in a three-dimensional global CTM. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 106 (D21). pp. 27729-27744. ISSN 0747-7309
The coupling of chemistry with atmospheric transport processes provides a mechanism for local and regional pollution from heavily populated continental regions to influence tropospheric composition at hemispheric and global scales. In this study we use the FRSGC/UCI 3-D chemical transport model to quantify the impact of ozone precursors from anthropogenic sources in the United States, Europe and East Asia on regional and global ozone budgets and to identify the key controlling processes. We find that the East Asian region has the greatest potential to affect tropospheric ozone due principally to efficient vertical transport, but that Europe experiences the greatest intercontinental effects due to rapid, short-distance transport from North America. In addition to significant boundary layer ozone production in each region, we find that 25-40% of the total net regional production occurs above 730 hPa in the free troposphere, and that on a hemispheric scale 70-85% of ozone from anthropogenic sources in the upper troposphere, above 400 hPa, is due to in-situ chemistry rather than direct vertical transport. Increased surface ozone concentrations over remote continents are largest in spring and autumn at northern mid-latitudes; while this seasonality is driven by horizontal transport in the free troposphere followed by subsidence, boundary layer and upper tropospheric chemical production make a substantial contribution. Although the effects are greatest in periodic episodes when meteorological conditions are favourable, there is significant enhancement in background ozone concentrations. We suggest that increasing emissions will significantly impact the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere by leading to greater polarization between ozone production and destruction environments.
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