McMillan, T. J. and Leatherman, E. and Ridley, A. J. and Shorrocks, J. and Tobi, S. E. and Whiteside, J. R. (2008) Cellular effects of long wavelength UV light (UVA) on mammalian cells. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 60 (8). pp. 969-976. ISSN 0022-3573Full text not available from this repository.
UVA should receive significant consideration as a human health risk as it is a large proportion of the solar spectrum that reaches the earth's surface and because of its ability to penetrate human skin. It is only relatively recently that this has been recognized and this previously under-researched part of the UV spectrum is becoming increasingly well characterized at doses that are quite low in relation to those experienced by humans. Absorption of UVA in a cell leads to the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that can damage major biomolecules including DNA and membrane lipids. Various types of damage induced in these molecules lead to significant biological effects including cytotoxicity, mutations and alterations in cell signalling pathways. Longer-term effects such as persistent genomic instability and bystander effects have also been observed following UVA treatment of mammalian cells and, as with ionizing radiation, this changes some of the fundamental thinking around tissue effects of irradiation. Antioxidants have been assessed extensively for their ability to protect against the biological effects of UVA and a number have been shown to be successful at least in-vitro, for example vitamin E and epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Other potential targets for protection are suggested through the increased understanding of some of the signalling mechanisms activated following treatment, for example the inhibition of NADPH oxidase is seen to reduce a bystander effect. The search for appropriate and successful photoprotective agents remains an important area of research.
|Journal or Publication Title:||Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology|
|Subjects:||R Medicine > RL Dermatology|
|Departments:||Faculty of Science and Technology > Lancaster Environment Centre|
Faculty of Health and Medicine > Biomedical & Life Sciences
|Deposited By:||Professor Trevor McMillan|
|Deposited On:||28 Apr 2011 08:53|
|Last Modified:||26 Jul 2012 18:04|
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