Nichol, H. A. and Skrbek, L. and Hendry, P. C. and McClintock, Peter V. E. (2004) Flow of He II due to an oscillating grid in the low-temperature limit. Physical Review Letters, 92 (24). p. 244501. ISSN 1079-7114
The macroscopic flow properties of pure He II are probed in the limit of zero temperature using an oscillating grid. As the oscillation amplitude passes a first critical threshold, the resonant frequency starts decreasing but the flow remains nondissipative. Beyond a second critical amplitude, the flow undergoes a transition to turbulence and becomes dissipative. Nonlinearity and hysteresis observed between the thresholds are attributed to a boundary layer of quantized vortices.
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