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Pentachlorophenol (PCP) and Chloranil as PCDD/F sources to sewage sludge and sludge amended soils in the UK.

Alcock, Ruth E. and Jones, Kevin C. (1997) Pentachlorophenol (PCP) and Chloranil as PCDD/F sources to sewage sludge and sludge amended soils in the UK. Chemosphere, 35 (10). pp. 2317-2330. ISSN 0045-6535

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Abstract

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) and its derivatives (NaPCP and PCPL) contain PCDD/Fs (predominantly Hp-CDD/Fs and OCDD/F) as impurities. Reported concentrations of 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners in technical PCP (1000 – 3000 μg TEQ/kg) are significantly higher than those reported in PCP products such as NaPCP (84 – 510 μg TEQ/kg). PCP-based textile preservatives (particularly associated with imported cotton textiles) probably represent an important PCDD/F source to sewage sludge. Chloranil and chloranil-based dyes and pigments can contain significant levels of PCDD/F impurities as predominantly OCDD. Associated dyes and pigment contain lower PCDD/F concentrations (2 – 200 μg TEQ/kg) than pure chloranil (300 – 2900 μg TEQ/kg). The use of water-based textile dyes containing chloranil in a given catchment could represent a significant source of higher molecular weight PCDD/F congeners to the resulting sewage sludge. In addition to sewage sludge, application of other types of organic amendments (e.g. farm yard manure), paper waste sludge and textile waste could represent important sources of PCDD/Fs to agricultural soils in the UK.

Item Type: Article
Journal or Publication Title: Chemosphere
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
Departments: Faculty of Science and Technology > Lancaster Environment Centre
ID Code: 21898
Deposited By: ep_ss_importer
Deposited On: 11 Feb 2009 11:48
Refereed?: Yes
Published?: Published
Last Modified: 21 Sep 2017 03:21
Identification Number:
URI: http://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/id/eprint/21898

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