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Formation of non-extractable pesticide residues: observations on compound differences, measurement and regulatory issues.

Mordaunt, Catriona J. and Gevao, Bondi and Jones, Kevin C. and Semple, Kirk T. (2005) Formation of non-extractable pesticide residues: observations on compound differences, measurement and regulatory issues. Environmental Pollution, 133 (1). pp. 25-34. ISSN 0269-7491

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Abstract

Six major use pesticides (Atrazine, Dicamba, Isoproturon, Lindane, Paraquat and Trifluralin) with differing physico-chemical properties were evaluated for the significance of `bound' or non extractable residue formation. Investigations were carried out in purpose-built microcosms where mineralization, volatilisation, `soil water' extractable and organic solvent extractable residues could be quantified. Extractable residues were defined as those accessible by sequential extraction where the solvent used became increasingly non-polar. Dichloromethane was the `harshest' solvent used at the end of the sequential extraction procedure. C-14- labelled volatilised and (CO2)-C-14 fractions were trapped on exit from the microcosm. The pesticides were categorised into 3 classes based on their behaviour. (i) Type A (Atrazine, Lindane and Trifluralin) in which ring degradation was limited as was the formation of non-extractable residues; the remainder of the C-14-activity was found in the extractable fraction. (ii) Type B (Dicamba and Isoproturon) in which approximately 25% of the C-14-activity was mineralised and a large portion was found in the non-extractable fraction after 91 days. Finally, Type C (Paraquat) in which almost all of the C-14-activity was quickly incorporated into the non-extractable fraction. The implications of the data are discussed, with respect to the variability and significance of regulatory aspects of non-extractable residues. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Item Type: Article
Journal or Publication Title: Environmental Pollution
Uncontrolled Keywords: availability ; extractability ; degradation ; bound residues
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
Departments: Faculty of Science and Technology > Lancaster Environment Centre
ID Code: 18554
Deposited By: Prof Kirk T. Semple
Deposited On: 27 Oct 2008 10:26
Refereed?: Yes
Published?: Published
Last Modified: 18 Sep 2013 16:18
Identification Number:
URI: http://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/id/eprint/18554

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