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Review of Polar Stratospheric Cloud Microphysics and Chemistry.

Lowe, Douglas and MacKenzie, Rob (2008) Review of Polar Stratospheric Cloud Microphysics and Chemistry. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 70 (1). pp. 13-40. ISSN 1364-6826

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    Abstract

    The solid and liquid particles which constitute polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are of manifold importance to the meteorology of the stratosphere. The heterogeneous reactions which take place on and within these particles release halogens from relatively inert reservoir species into forms which can destroy ozone in the polar spring. In addition, solid PSC particles are instrumental in the physical removal of nitrogen oxides (denitrification) and water (dehydration) of regions of the polar stratosphere. Denitrification, in particular, allows extended ozone destruction by slowing the conversion of chlorine radicals back into reservoir species. We review the historical development of PSC studies, with particular emphasis on results from the last decade, encompassing developments in observations, in laboratory experiments, and in theoretical treatments. The technical challenge of measuring sufficient of the parameters describing any given polar stratospheric cloud, to allow its microphysics to be understood, has driven forward balloon-borne, aircraft, and satellite instrumentation. The technical challenge of finding suitable laboratory proxies for PSCs, in order to observe the microphysics under controlled conditions, has resulted in a wide variety of experimental designs, some of which maximise the probability of observing phase change, others of which mimic the surface-volume ratios of PSCs more closely. The challenge to theory presented by PSCs has resulted in improvements in the thermodynamics of concentrated inorganic solutions of volatile compounds, and a new general theory of freezing of water ice from concentrated aqueous solutions. Of the major processes involving PSCs, heterogeneous reaction probabilities for ternary HNO3/H2SO4/H2O solutions, and heterogeneous freezing to produce nitric acid hydrates, are the least well understood.

    Item Type: Article
    Journal or Publication Title: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics
    Additional Information: The final, definitive version of this article has been published in the Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 70 (1), 2008, © ELSEVIER.
    Uncontrolled Keywords: Polar stratospheric cloud ; stratospheric ozone depletion ; stratospheric aerosol ; denitrification ; heterogeneous chemistry ; freezing nucleation
    Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
    Q Science > QD Chemistry
    Q Science > QC Physics
    Departments: Faculty of Science and Technology > Lancaster Environment Centre
    ID Code: 1638
    Deposited By: Dr Rob MacKenzie
    Deposited On: 18 Feb 2008 08:55
    Refereed?: Yes
    Published?: Published
    Last Modified: 26 Jul 2012 15:16
    Identification Number:
    URI: http://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/id/eprint/1638

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