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Modelling exposure opportunities : estimating relative risk for motor neurone disease in Finland.

Sabel, Clive E. and Gatrell, Anthony C. and Löytönen, Markku and Maasilta, Paula and Jokelainen, Matti (2000) Modelling exposure opportunities : estimating relative risk for motor neurone disease in Finland. Social Science and Medicine, 50 (7-8). pp. 1121-1137. ISSN 0277-9536

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Abstract

This paper addresses the issues surrounding an individual's exposure to potential environmental risk factors, which can be implicated in the aetiology of a disease. We hope to further elucidate the ‘lag’ or latency period between the initial exposure to potential pathogens and the physical emergence of the disease, with specific reference to the rare neurological condition, motor neurone disease (MND), using a dataset obtained from the Finnish Death Certificate registry, for MND deaths between the period 1985–1995. A space–time approach is adopted, whereby patterns in both time and space are considered. No prior assumptions about the aetiology of MND are adopted. By using methods for the analysis of point processes, which preserve the continuous nature of the data, we resolve some of the problems of analysis that are often based on arbitrary areal units, such as postcode boundaries, or political boundaries. We use kernel estimation to model space–time patterns. Raised relative risk is assessed by adopting appropriate adjustments for the underlying population at risk, with the use of controls. Significance of the results is assessed using Monte Carlo simulation, and comparisons are made with results obtained from Openshaw's geographical analysis machine (GAM). Our results demonstrate the utility of kernel estimation as a visualisation tool. Small areas of elevated risk are identified, which need to be more closely examined before any firm conclusions can be drawn. We highlight a number of issues concerning the inadequacies of the data, and possibly of the techniques themselves.

Item Type: Article
Journal or Publication Title: Social Science and Medicine
Uncontrolled Keywords: GIS ; Cluster detection ; Motor neurone disease (MND) ; Kernel estimation ; Space–time clustering ; Finland
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Departments: Faculty of Science and Technology > Lancaster Environment Centre
Faculty of Health and Medicine > Health Research
Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences
Faculty of Health and Medicine
ID Code: 14419
Deposited By: Mr Richard Ingham
Deposited On: 17 Oct 2008 11:19
Refereed?: Yes
Published?: Published
Last Modified: 26 Jul 2012 15:14
Identification Number:
URI: http://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/id/eprint/14419

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