Benford, Steve and Schnadelbach, Holger and Koleva, Boriana and Anastasi, Rob and Greenhalgh, Chris and Rodden, Tom and Green, Jonathan and Ghali, Ahmed and Pridmore, Tony and Gaver, Bill and Boucher, Andy and Walker, Brendan and Pennington, Sarah and Schmidt, Albrecht and Gellersen, Hans and Steed, Anthony (2005) Expected, sensed, and desired: A framework for designing sensing-based interaction. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 12 (1). pp. 3-30. ISSN 1073-0516
Movements of interfaces can be analyzed in terms of whether they are expected, sensed, and desired. Expected movements are those that users naturally perform; sensed are those that can be measured by a computer; and desired movements are those that are required by a given application. We show how a systematic comparison of expected, sensed, and desired movements, especially with regard to how they do not precisely overlap, can reveal potential problems with an interface and also inspire new features. We describe how this approach has been applied to the design of three interfaces: pointing flashlights at walls and posters in order to play sounds; the Augurscope II, a mobile augmented reality interface for outdoors; and the Drift Table, an item of furniture that uses load sensing to control the display of aerial photographs. We propose that this approach can help to build a bridge between the analytic and inspirational approaches to design and can help designers meet the challenges raised by a diversification of sensing technologies and interface forms, increased mobility, and an emerging focus on technologies for everyday life.
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